Volume 13, Number 2: According to Project Underground, the California based industry watchdog, petroleum exploration currently threatens old growth frontier forests in 22 countries, coral reefs in 38 countries, and mangroves in 46 countries. Keep in mind that this is just what is being destroyed while these corporate giants look for future sites to exploit.
The concession, which covered the entire territory of Persia, gave Reuter the exclusive rights and monopoly, for seventy years, to exploit all mineral resources including, but not limited to, coal, iron, copper, lead, and petroleum, and to construct and operate roads, railways, telegraph lines, water canals, irrigation systems, and customs services.
Reuter never accepted the cancellation of his concession and repeatedly filed claims for compensation. Under this new concession the bank had the right to exploit all mineral resources throughout the country, except gold, silver, and other precious metals.
The bank subsequently sold its mineral rights to a British company, called the Persian Mining Corporation, for the sum ofPounds Sterling.
The concession agreements, which were the legal basis Standard oil trust which the oil industry was run in most oil producing countries until early s, can best be summed up as an arrangement whereby a government grants exclusive rights to a company or an individual to carry out petroleum operations in a defined area for a finite period.
The concessionaire bears the burden of the financial and commercial risks but acquires the right to excavate the oil and dispose of it freely in exchange for the payment of certain specified sums to the government as the owner of resources Parra, pp.
The deal would initiate the era of oil in the Middle East, and Persia itself or Iran, as it would be known from onward would emerge into prominence on the world oil stage. The rivalry between Britain and Czarist Russia had at that time turned Persia into a major factor in Great Power diplomacy.
A British oil concession would assist in righting the balance against Russia. And thus Britain gave its support to the venture. These provinces were excluded to avoid offending Russia which regarded the north part of Persia as its own sphere of influence, in the same way that Britain saw southern Persia as falling in its own orbit.
Archives; for the terms, see Hurewitz, I, pp. To put together and run the operation on the ground in Persia, he hired George Reynolds, a graduate of the Royal Indian Engineering College with previous drilling experience in Sumatra.
By Aprilless than three years after its inception, the venture was on the verge of collapse Ferrier, pp.
Their agreement established the so-called concession syndicate. The newly incorporated Anglo-Persian Oil Company q. A major new source of oil had been secured under British protection.
However, there were problems with the extraction of the oil and the refining. On its first test inthe refinery broke down and the quality of its products was also poor.
Once again, the very survival of the Persian venture was in doubt. By the end ofthe APOC had exhausted its working capital. A few years earlier, Burma Oil had saved the day. Now a new savior would have to be found Ferrier, pp.
On June 17, Churchill introduced this historic measure in the House of Commons. The bill he proposed contained two important features: Another contract was drawn up separately, so it could be kept secret; it provided the Admiralty with a twenty-year contract for fuel oil. Moreover, there were tribal uprising in the south and rebellions in the north, and the country was close to a state of complete chaos and anarchy.
Conditions were propitious for a powerful figure to step in and fill the virtual vacuum of authority in the capital city of Tehran. After initially taking the post of minister of war, he consolidated his position and became prime minister in It did not take the APOC long to realize that it would no longer be dealing with the traditionally weak governments of the Qajar era, but with a new authoritarian figure Bamberg, pp.
From the Iranian point of view and even during the last years of the Qajar dynasty, the main consideration from the oil activities within the country was purely economic and the government was mainly interested in revenues from oil operations. In this regard disagreements developed from the early years of oil operations, between the government and the APOC.
The heart of the problem was the definition of profits, about which expert opinions differed.
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