History of sociology The field of sociology itself—and sociological theory by extension—is relatively new.
Open bibliography in its own window Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe.
Beginning in the latter twelfth century, however, hostility toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions. Condemnation of homosexual acts and other nonprocreative sexual behavior as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and has continued through the present day Boswell, Many of the early American colonies, for example, enacted stiff criminal penalties for sodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual acts that were nonprocreative including homosexual behavioroccurred outside of marriage e.
The statutes often described such conduct only in Latin or with oblique phrases such as "wickedness not to be named". In some places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death e. By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectively competing with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality.
As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology.
Lastly, sociological theory often grapples with the problem of integrating or transcending the divide between micro, meso and macro-scale social phenomena, which is a subset of all three central problems. Ethical Conduct in Youth Work a statement of values and principles from The National Youth Agency Eastgate House, 19–23 Humberstone Road, Leicester LE5 3GJ. A general sociological orientation is a broad perspective that guides an explanation, interpretation or understanding of the social world. explanatory context General sociological orientations lie between general theories and epistemological perspectives and are akin to 'research traditions'.
This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e. Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not universally viewed as a pathology.
Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualis, but Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances. Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology.
In a now-famous letter to an American mother inFreud wrote: Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however.
Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al.
Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for a detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing.
This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways.
To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the researchers who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond.
An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality. Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population.
Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of gay men and lesbians. Alfred Kinsey A more tolerant stance toward homosexuality was adopted by researchers from other disciplines.
Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C. Nevertheless, his work revealed that many more American adults than previously suspected had engaged in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies.
This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits.
In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies. As with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used.
However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Military research Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an illness was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or socially misfit.More of a minor point and perhaps off topic in this discussion, but concerned with the general topic of this blog: I'm having my qualms with the example in point 9.
General Orientation: Birth of the Social Sciences General Orientation Birth of the Social Sciences Thinking Sociologically Sociological Methods Sociological Theory &.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. Listed below are links to social psychology topics such as prejudice and discrimination, gender, culture, social influence, interpersonal relations, group behavior, aggression, and more.
Start studying Sociology Chapter 1: the Sociological Perspective. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This study examines the impact of sexual orientation, gender, race, and education across attitudinal topics covered by the General Social Survey.
Sexual orientation is an important part of people’s lives that, as I demonstrate, is a strong and exceptionally consistent predictor of social attitudes across issues regardless of whether it is. Chapter 1 Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method. Pearson - Society the basic 11th edition John j.
sociological perspective. the special point of view sociology that sees the general pattern of society in the lives of particular people reveals the power of society to shape individual lives Chapter 1 Sociology: Perspective, Theory.