Remembering the Roma victims of the Holocaust The Holocaust narrative focusing on the exclusivity of the Jewish experience is wrong - and must change. A young girl stares out from the door of a train, her head covered in a scarf, her expression a strange mixture of weariness and fear. Anna Maria "Settela" Steinbach. Ten years old when the photo was taken.
Roma Victims of the Holocaust: Table of Contents "The Gypsy Nuisance" Police Policy Against the Roma It is extremely difficult to locate sources about the Roma people in the Holocaust like those widely available about Jewish victims, which may reflect the difference between a literate culture and a largely illiterate one.
It is known that perhapsRoma were killed and that, proportionately, they suffered greater losses than any other group of victims except Jews.
Eventually, the Romas they reached Europe and became part of the ethnic mix of many countries, contributing in areas such a music and the arts.
Although they were "Aryan" according to the Nazi racial typology, they were pursued relentlessly for persecution. Part 1 For Nazi Germany, the Roma became a racist dilemma. The Roma were Aryans, but in the Nazi mind there were contradictions between what they regarded as the superiority of the Aryan race and their image of the Roma people.
At a conference held in Berlin on January 30,a decision was taken to expel 30, Roma from Germany to the territories of occupied Poland. The reports of the SS Einsatzgruppen which operated in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union mention the murder of thousands of Romas along with the massive extermination of the Jews in these areas.
The deportations and executions of the Roma came under Himmler's authority. On December 16,Himmler issued an order to send all Roma to the concentration campswith a few exceptions The deported Romas were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenauwhere a special Roma camp was erected.
Over 20, Romas from Germany and some other parts of Europe were sent to this camp, and most of them were gassed there Wiernik described the arrival of the largest Roma group brought to Treblinka, in the spring of One day, while I was working near the gate, I noticed the Germans and Ukrainians making special preparations About of them were men, and the rest women and children Roma from the General Government [Poland] who were not sent to Auschwitz and to the operation Reinhard camps were shot on spot by the local police or gendarmes.
In the eastern region of the krakow district, in the counties of Sanok, Jaslo, and Rzeszow, close to 1, Roma were shot. Part 2 Like the Jews, Roma were singled out by the Nazis for racial persecution and annihilation.
They were 'nonpersons,' of 'foreign blood,' 'labor-shy,' and as such were termed asocials. To a degree, they shared the fate of the Jews in their ghettos, in the extermination camps, before firing squads, as medical guinea pigs, and being injected with lethal substances.
A more contemporary Nazi theorist believed that "the Gypsy Roma Roma cannot, by reason of his inner and outer makeup Konstruktionbe a useful member of the human community. Inthey were classified as asocials, second-class citizens, subject to concentration camp imprisonment.
For the sake of efficiency Roma were also shot naked, facing their pre-dug graves. According to the Nazi experts, shooting Jews was easier, they stood still, 'while the Gypsies cry out, howl, and move constantly, even when they are already standing on the shooting ground.
Some of them even jumped into the ditch before the volley and pretended to be dead. Those married to Germans were exempted but were sterilized, as were their children after the age of twelve.
Adolf Eichmann, chief strategist of these diabolical logistics, supplied the answer in a telegram from Vienna to the Gestapo: Regarding transport of Gypsies be informed that on Friday, October 20,the first transport of Jews will depart Vienna.
The simplest method is to attach some carloads of Gypsies to each transport. Because these transports must follow schedule, a smooth execution of this matter is expected.
For a while Himmler wished to exempt two tribes and 'only' sterilize them, but by he signed the decree for all "Gypsies" to be shipped to Auschwitz.
Roma perished in Dachau, Mauthausen, Ravensbruck and other camps. At Sachsenhausen they were subjected to special experiments that were to prove scientifically that their blood was different from that of the Germans.
The doctors in charge of this 'research' were the same ones who had practiced previously on black prisoners of war.Remembering the Roma victims of the Holocaust.
The Holocaust narrative focusing on the exclusivity of the Jewish experience is wrong - and must change. Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, in The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (), favour a definition that focuses on the Jews, Roma, and Aktion T4 victims: "The Holocaust—that is, Nazi genocide—was the systematic, state-sponsored murder of entire groups determined by heredity.
This applied to Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped.". HISTORY OF THE HOLOCAUST: AN OVERVIEW 19 HISTORY OF THE HOLOCAUST: AN OVERVIEW than 20 countries would be killed under this heinous plan. During the months before the Wannsee Conference, special units made up of SS, the elite guard of They saw Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and the handicapped as a serious biological threat to.
Thousands of Sinti and Roma men, women, and children are believed to have been killed in these actions, often carried out under the pretext that the victims were “spies.” In western and southern Europe, the fate of Sinti and Roma varied from country to country, depending on local circumstances.
The Roma and the Holocaust of World War II: Victims, Then and Now By Julia Hajdu. My initial interest in Roma topics began with a course in minority rights at a university in Hungary.
We discussed issues of origin, education, culture and their place in the eyes of the white Hungarian majority. The History and Significance of August 2, Roma Holocaust Memorial Day On August 2, , nearly 3, Roma and Sinti women, men and children were murdered in .